Praveen Rai 1, Ballamoole Krishna Kumar 2, Vijaya Kumar Deekshit 2, Indrani Karunasagar 2, Iddya Karunasagar 3
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jan;105(2):441-455. doi: 10.1007/s00253-020-11061-5. Epub 2021 Jan 4.
COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 capable of causing mild to severe infections in humans. Since its first appearance in China in December 2019, the pandemic has spread rapidly throughout the world. Despite considerable efforts made to contain the disease, the virus has continued its prevalence in many countries with varying degrees of clinical manifestations. To contain this pandemic, collaborative approach involving accurate diagnosis, epidemiology, surveillance, and prophylaxis is essential. However, proper diagnosis using rapid technologies plays a crucial role. With increasing incidence of COVID-19 cases, the accurate and early detection of the SARS-CoV-2 is need of the hour for effective prevention and management of COVID-19 cases as well as to curb its spread. RT-qPCR assay is considered to be the gold standard for the early detection of virus, but this protocol has limited application to use as bedside test because of its technical complexity. To address these challenges, several POC assays have been developed to facilitate the COVID-19 diagnosis outside the centralized testing laboratories as well to accelerate the clinical decision making with a least turnaround time. Hence, in this report, we review different nucleic acid-based and serological techniques available for the diagnosis and effective prevention of COVID-19. KEY POINTS : • Provides comprehensive information on the different diagnostic tools available for COVID-19 • Nucleic acid based tests or antigen detection tests are used for diagnostic purpose • Accurate diagnosis is essential for the efficient management of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Diagnosis; RT-LAMP; RT-qPCR; SARS-CoV-2; Serology.
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